Summerfield C65: A Hybrid of Manuscript and Print
The colophon on the final page of Summerfield C65 states that it was produced on 1 October 1505 by Guillaume Anabat, a book printer in Paris, for Germain Hardouyn, a prominent book publisher. Although printed solely in black ink, Hardouyn had many of the full-page illuminations and miniatures colorfully painted to resemble traditional hand-produced manuscripts. After its initial creation, the book passed through the hands of diverse owners, who displayed their ownership by sewing in additional images, inscribing their names, or annotating the pages with simple religious poems. While mass-produced, this unique Book of Hours became a personalized devotional object to each subsequent caretaker.